Diabetes is a disease that occurs when your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Blood glucose is your main source of energy and comes from the food you eat. Insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas, helps glucose from food get into your cells to be used for energy.

What Causes Diabetes

The Causes of Diabetes are Different Depending on Type of Diabetes and other Factors

There is no one cause. The cause of Diabetes vary depending on your genetic makeup, family history, ethnicity, health and environmental factors. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition where the pancreas cannot produce insulin, whereas type 2 diabetes is the body’s resistance to insulin.

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What is dangerous?

Low Blood Sugar is more Dangerous than High Blood Sugar

Although you would like to keep blood sugar in normal range 4-6 mmol/dl or 80-120 mg/l. Low blood sugar can kill because glucose is essential for cell life. High blood sugar will kill in months or years, low blood sugar will kill in seconds.
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Know More about Diabetes

How Can You Identify Diabetes

Types of diabetes

type 1 diabetes – where the body's immune system attacks and destroys the cells that produce insulin type 2 diabetes – where the body does not produce enough insulin, or the body's cells do not react to insulin

Diagnose diabetes

Diabetes is diagnosed with fasting sugar blood tests (after 8 hours fasting) or with A1c blood tests, also known as glycated hemoglobin tests. fasting blood sugar is less than 100 mg/dl (5.6 mmol/l)


Many more people have blood sugar levels above the normal range, but not high enough to be diagnosed as having diabetes. There is high risk of them developing diabetes.

Gestational diabetes

Most women with gestational diabetes ( pregnancy diabetes) don’t have any symptoms. The condition is often detected during a routine blood sugar test or oral glucose tolerance test that is usually performed between the 24th and 28th weeks of gestation. Most of these normalise after delivery.

Symptoms of diabetes

Symptoms of diabetes include increased thirst, increased urination & increased hunger + fatigue, blurred vision, numbness, unexplained weight loss

Risk factors Type 2

Type 1 diabetes has no specific factors apart from autoimmune destruction of pancreas. Type 2 -overweight , age 45 or older, parent or sibling with diabetes, sedantry life style, gestational diabetes, prediabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or high triglycerides

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How does insulin work?


Insulin is a hormone that comes from the gland situated behind and below the stomach (pancreas).

  • The pancreas secretes insulin into the bloodstream.
  • The insulin circulates, enabling sugar to enter your cells.
  • Insulin lowers the amount of sugar in your bloodstream.
  • As your blood sugar level drops, so does the secretion of insulin from your pancreas.

  After you eat food and your blood sugar level rises, cells in your pancreas (known as beta cells) are signaled to release insulin into your bloodstream. Insulin then attaches to and signals cells to absorb sugar from the bloodstream. Insulin is often described as a “key,” which unlocks the cell to allow sugar to enter the cell and be used for energy.

If you have more sugar in your body than it needs, insulin helps store the sugar in your liver and releases it when your blood sugar level is low or if you need more sugar, such as in between meals or during physical activity. Therefore, insulin helps balance out blood sugar levels and keeps them in a normal range. As blood sugar levels rise, the pancreas secretes more insulin.

If your body does not produce enough insulin or your cells are resistant to the effects of insulin, you may develop hyperglycemia (high blood sugar), which can cause long-term complications if the blood sugar levels stay elevated for long periods of time.


WHO criteria for diagnosing diabetes

Diabetes symptoms (e.g. polyuria, polydipsia and unexplained weight loss for Type 1) plus: a random venous plasma glucose concentration ≥ 11.1 mmol/l or a fasting plasma glucose concentration ≥ 7.0 mmol/l (whole blood ≥ 6.1 mmol/l) or two hour plasma glucose concentration ≥ 11.1 mmol/l two hours after 75g anhydrous glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).

What Treatment other than Insulin

Different Tablets for Diabetes

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